Full realization of quantitative cortical brain surface measurement through stereo pair without separate tracking technology
Intraoperative soft tissue deformation, referred to as brain shift, compromises the application of current image-guided surgery navigation systems in neurosurgery. A computational model driven by sparse data has been proposed as a cost-effective method to compensate for cortical surface and volumetric displacements. In this thesis, I propose an innovative approach to image guidance within the neurosurgical environment. More specifically, I hypothesize that the surgical operating microscope equipped with two CCD cameras and an intra-operative stereo vision (iSV) system can be used as a complete locoregional (restricted to a localized region of the body) platform to achieve conventional image guidance but also to compensate for intra-operative brain shift, all realized without the use of conventional optical tracking technologies, i.e. a trackerless image guidance approach. Locoregional therapy refers to various minimally invasive therapeutic procedures. The approach centers around locoregional, stereo pair-driven, continuous registration strategies designed to match and possibly outperform the standard-of-care instrumentation of a separately optically-tracked surgical microscope. This dissertation consists of four specific aims: (1) Development of a mock craniotomy and brain shift simulator to evaluate methods for registration and tracking of mock brain shift for evaluation of a stereo-camera platform approach. (2) Translation of the stereo-pair technology to a stereo surgical microscope and validation of brain shift measurement using stereo-pair reconstructions. (3) Development of a novel planner that takes advantage of computer vision approaches to enable the planning of a patient’s craniotomy during image-guided neurosurgery without the need of conventional tracking technologies. (4) Demonstrate a proof-of-concept framework whereby deformation-corrected image guided neurosurgery can be performed without the need for conventional tracking and using stereo-pair microscope technology.