The serpent without shame: economic development and change in the Afro-Ecuadorian communities of northwestern Esmeraldas
Implicit in definitions and in the practice of community and economic development are assumptions that the processes and outcomes will improve the human condition. In the towns, riverine, and mangrove swamp communities of northwestern Ecuador, this is not the case. This study examines the changing political economy of the area, country and region. The study suggests that the African-descendent mangrove and swamp communities negotiate, adapt, and resist the changes through a process of bounded and alienated collective intentionality.