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Akt Signaling in Macrophage Polarization, Survival, and Atherosclerosis

dc.contributor.authorLinton, MacRae F.
dc.contributor.authorMoslehi, Javid J.
dc.contributor.authorBabaev, Vladimir R.
dc.identifier.citationLinton, M.F.; Moslehi, J.J.; Babaev, V.R. Akt Signaling in Macrophage Polarization, Survival, and Atherosclerosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2703en_US
dc.description.abstractThe PI3K/Akt pathway plays a crucial role in the survival, proliferation, and migration of macrophages, which may impact the development of atherosclerosis. Changes in Akt isoforms or modulation of the Akt activity levels in macrophages significantly affect their polarization phenotype and consequently atherosclerosis in mice. Moreover, the activity levels of Akt signaling determine the viability of monocytes/macrophages and their resistance to pro-apoptotic stimuli in atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, elimination of pro-apoptotic factors as well as factors that antagonize or suppress Akt signaling in macrophages increases cell viability, protecting them from apoptosis, and this markedly accelerates atherosclerosis in mice. In contrast, inhibition of Akt signaling by the ablation of Rictor in myeloid cells, which disrupts mTORC2 assembly, significantly decreases the viability and proliferation of blood monocytes and macrophages with the suppression of atherosclerosis. In addition, monocytes and macrophages exhibit a threshold effect for Akt protein levels in their ability to survive. Ablation of two Akt isoforms, preserving only a single Akt isoform in myeloid cells, markedly compromises monocyte and macrophage viability, inducing monocytopenia and diminishing early atherosclerosis. These recent advances in our understanding of Akt signaling in macrophages in atherosclerosis may have significant relevance in the burgeoning field of cardio-oncology, where PI3K/Akt inhibitors being tested in cancer patients can have significant cardiovascular and metabolic ramifications.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was supported by National Institutes of Health grants HL105375, HL116263, DK50435, DK59637 (Lipid, Lipoprotein, and Atherosclerosis Core of the Vanderbilt Mouse Metabolic Phenotype Centers).en_US
dc.publisherInternational Journal of Molecular Sciencesen_US
dc.rightsThis is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
dc.subjectAkt signalingen_US
dc.titleAkt Signaling in Macrophage Polarization, Survival, and Atherosclerosisen_US

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