Juvenile idiopathic arthritis associated with a mutation in GATA3
Patrick, Anna E.
Graham, Thomas Brent
Aune, Thomas M.
Duis, Jessica B.
BackgroundGATA3 is a transcription factor that is important during development and plays a role in differentiation and activity of immune cells, particularly T cells. Abnormal T cell function is found in autoimmune arthritis. We present the first known case of autoimmune arthritis associated with a novel GATA3 mutation.Methods Whole exome sequencing of the proband was performed on a clinical basis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from the proband, healthy sibling, and parent. cDNA prepared from RNA was analyzed with polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. Intracellular proteins were assessed by immunoblot of PBMC homogenates. GATA3 in vitro activity was measured in HeLa cell cultures expressing a mammalian expression vector containing GATA3 or mutants generated by site-directed mutagenesis. GATA3 transcriptional activity was examined using a luciferase reporter assay system. T helper cell ex vivo function was evaluated by stimulating PBMCs to differentiate into effector T cells along Th0, Th1, Th2, and Th17 lineages, and re-stimulating effector cells to secrete cytokines. Cytokine production was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.ResultsThe proband is the first known case of autoimmune arthritis associated with a mutation in GATA3. The proband M401VfsX106 protein is expressed and has a dominant negative function on GATA3 transcriptional activity. The proband PBMCs have markedly increased differentiation along the Th1 and Th17 pathways, with decreased differentiation along the Th2 pathway. Unexpectedly, Th0 cells from the proband express high levels of IFN.Conclusions Our research presents the first known case of autoimmune arthritis associated with a mutation in GATA3. This work expands the phenotypic spectrum of GATA3 mutations. It reveals the novel insight that decreased and altered GATA3 activity coincides with autoimmune arthritis. This work suggests that modulation of GATA3 may be a therapeutic approach for patients with autoimmune arthritis.