PPARγ-Independent Side Effects of Thiazolidinediones on Mitochondrial Redox State in Rat Isolated Hearts
Riess, Matthias L.
Stowe, David F.
Camara, Amadou K. S.
The effect of anti-diabetic thiazolidinediones (TZDs) on contributing to heart failure and cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury is controversial. In this study we investigated the effect of select TZDs on myocardial and mitochondrial function in Brown Norway rat isolated hearts. In a first set of experiments, the TZD rosiglitazone was given acutely before global myocardial IR, and pre- and post-IR function and infarct size were assessed. In a second set of experiments, different concentrations of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone were administered in the presence or absence of the specific PPAR gamma antagonist GW9662, and their effects on the mitochondrial redox state were measured by online NADH and FAD autofluorescence. The administration of rosiglitazone did not significantly affect myocardial function except for transiently increasing coronary flow, but it increased IR injury compared to the control hearts. Both TZDs resulted in dose-dependent, reversible increases in mitochondrial oxidation which was not attenuated by GW9662. Taken together, these data suggest that TZDs cause excessive mitochondrial uncoupling by a PPAR gamma-independent mechanism. Acute rosiglitazone administration before IR was associated with enhanced cardiac injury. If translated clinically, susceptible patients on PPAR gamma agonists may experience enhanced myocardial IR injury by mitochondrial dysfunction.