APOL1, Acid Load, and CKD Progression
Stewart, Thomas G.
Siew, Edward D.
Ikizler, T. Alp
Introduction: High dietary acid load and metabolic acidosis are associated with an accelerated decline in kidney function and may contribute to the observed heterogeneity in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) risk according to APOL1 genotype. Our objective was to examine the associations of metabolic acidosis and dietary acid load with kidney disease progression, according to APOL1 genotype, among individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: We studied 1048 African American participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort. Metabolic acidosis was defined as blood levels of serum bicarbonate less than 22 mEq/L, and dietary acid load was quantified by potential renal acid load (PRAL) using data from the Diet Health Questionnaire. APOL1 status was defined as having 2 risk variants, consisting of either possible combination of the G1 and G2 risk alleles. We tested associations of APOL1 and dietary and metabolic acidosis with CKD progression, defined as time to ESRD or 50% decline in eGFR. Results: During a median follow-up period of 7 years, 379 participants had an incident CKD progression event (6.4 events per 100 person-years). After full adjustment, among participants with 2 APOL1 variants, the analysis failed to detect an association between metabolic acidosis or dietary acid load and CKD progression (hazard ratio [HR], 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96-1.11 per 1 mEq/L higher serum bicarbonate and an HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.92-1.15 per 10 mEq/L higher PRAL). Similar associations were noted among participants without the APOL1 high-risk genotype. Conclusion: In a population at high risk of developing ESRD, metabolic acidosis and dietary acid load were not associated with CKD progression.