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Autologous Chondrocyte Grafting Promotes Bone Formation in the Posterolateral Spine
Pseudarthrosis following spinal fusion remains problematic despite modern surgical and grafting techniques. In surgical spinal fusion, new bone forms via intramembranous and endochondral ossification, with endochondral ...
Unexpected Timely Fracture Union in Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Deficient Mice
Immediately following a fracture, a fibrin laden hematoma is formed to prevent bleeding and infection. Subsequently, the organized removal of fibrin, via the protease plasmin, is essential to permit fracture repair through ...
Bone Fracture Acute Phase Response—A Unifying Theory of Fracture Repair: Clinical and Scientific Implications
Bone fractures create five problems that must be resolved: bleeding, risk of infection, hypoxia, disproportionate strain, and inability to bear weight. There have been enormous advancements in our understanding of the ...