The Impact of Tier 1 Teacher Practices on Student Responsiveness to Tier 2 Interventions
Van Camp, Alyssa M.
Students with or at-risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) experience several negative outcomes including academic failure, high rates of exclusionary discipline practices, high school dropout, unemployment, and an increased likelihood of incarceration. While research has identified several behavior management practices that meet the needs of students with or at-risk for EBD, teachers implement these practices at very low levels in classrooms. In a multi-tiered system of behavior support, such as School-wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS), the accurate identification of students for more intensive interventions at Tier 2 or Tier 3 rests on the assumption that Tier 1 practices are implemented consistently across classrooms and students. If this is not the case, schools may over-identify students for more intensive interventions when improved implementation of Tier 1 supports could effectively meet student needs. The purpose of this study was to assess how teachers' implementation of evidence-based Tier 1 behavior management practices (i.e., praise, reprimands, opportunities to respond) toward students with challenging behavior moderated and mediated student responsiveness to a Tier 2 self-monitoring intervention. Additionally, the study sought to determine whether a Tier 2 self-monitoring intervention improved teacher implementation of Tier 1 practices. Findings indicate the Tier 2 self-monitoring intervention was associated with changes in teacher praise, but not in teacher reprimands or OTRs. Additionally, teacher behaviors did not mediate or moderate student responsiveness to the Tier 2 self-monitoring intervention.