The Trp triad within the V-domain of the receptor for advanced glycation end products modulates folding, stability and ligand binding
Indurthi, Venkata S. K.
Jensen, Jaime L.
Colbert, Christopher L.
Vetter, Stefan W.
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) recognizes damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and plays a critical role for the innate immune response and sterile tissue inflammation. RAGE overexpression is associated with diabetic complications, neurodegenerative diseases and certain cancers. Yet, the molecular mechanism of ligand recognition by RAGE is insufficiently understood to rationalize the binding of diverse ligands. The N-terminal V-type Ig-domain of RAGE contains a triad of tryptophan residue; Trp(51), Trp(61) and Trp(72). The role of these three Trp residues for domain folding, stability and binding of the RAGE ligand S100B was investigated through site-directed mutagenesis, UV/VIS, CD and fluorescence spectrometry, protein-protein interaction studies, and X-ray crystallography. The data show that the Trp triad stabilizes the folded V-domain by maintaining a short helix in the structure. Mutation of any Trp residue increases the structural plasticity of the domain. Residues Trp(61) and Trp(72) are involved in the binding of S100B, yet they are not strictly required for S100B binding. The crystal structure of the RAGE-derived peptide W72 in complex with S100B showed that Trp(72) is deeply buried in a hydrophobic depression on the S100B surface. The studies suggest that multiple binding modes between RAGE and S100B exist and point toward a not previously recognized role of the Trp residues for RAGE-ligand binding. The Trp triad of the V-domain appears to be a suitable target for novel RAGE inhibitors, either in the form of monoclonal antibodies targeting this epitope, or small organic molecules.