Alternative instructional strategies for low-literate adults: An investigation of the effects of static and dynamic visuals on learning outcomes
Cohen, Bruce B.
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of three instructional media on learning among adults in developing countries. Participants included 90 women from Central and South America randomly assigned to one of three modes of instruction: narrative only, narrative plus still images, or narrative plus video segments. At the conclusion of a presentation in one of the three modes of instruction, each participant was tested on four categories of learning: recall of facts, recall of procedures, demonstration of stepwise procedures, and demonstration of conditional procedures. Test results revealed that the addition of still images to narrative had no bearing on the recall of facts but had a positive bearing on the recall and demonstration of procedures for participants with seven or more years of schooling. The addition of video to narrative, by comparison, appears to have raised scores for all participants with respect to recall and demonstration of procedures -- raising scores for participants with zero to six years of schooling more dramatically and more consistently than those with seven or more years of schooling.